Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs Fact Sheet July 3, More information about Germany is available on the Germany Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet. The United States established diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Prussia inthen the German Empire in After the war, Germany was divided into four zones occupied by Allied powers; Berlin also was divided.
Visit Website Did you know? The term 'cold war' first appeared in a essay by the English writer George Orwell called 'You and the Atomic Bomb.
The Atomic Age The containment strategy also provided the rationale for an unprecedented arms buildup in the United States. To that end, the report called for a four-fold increase in defense spending. Visit Website In particular, American officials encouraged the development of atomic weapons like the ones that had ended World War II.
In response, President Truman announced that the United States would build an even more destructive atomic weapon: As a result, the stakes of the Cold War were perilously high. The first H-bomb test, in the Eniwetok atoll in the Marshall Islands, showed just how fearsome the nuclear age could be.
It created a square-mile fireball that vaporized an island, blew a huge hole in the ocean floor and had the power to destroy half of Manhattan. Subsequent American and Soviet tests spewed poisonous radioactive waste into the atmosphere. The ever-present threat of nuclear annihilation had a great impact on American domestic life as well.
People built bomb shelters in their backyards. They practiced attack drills in schools and other public places. The s and s saw an epidemic of popular films that horrified moviegoers with depictions of nuclear devastation and mutant creatures.
In the United States, space was seen as the next frontier, a logical extension of the grand American tradition of exploration, and it was crucial not to lose too much ground to the Soviets.
In addition, this demonstration of the overwhelming power of the R-7 missile—seemingly capable of delivering a nuclear warhead into U. Inthe U. Army under the direction of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, and what came to be known as the Space Race was underway. That same year, President Dwight Eisenhower signed a public order creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAa federal agency dedicated to space exploration, as well as several programs seeking to exploit the military potential of space.
Still, the Soviets were one step ahead, launching the first man into space in April Kennedy made the bold public claim that the U.
Soviets, in turn, were pictured as the ultimate villains, with their massive, relentless efforts to surpass America and prove the power of the communist system.
The committee began a series of hearings designed to show that communist subversion in the United States was alive and well. In HollywoodHUAC forced hundreds of people who worked in the movie industry to renounce left-wing political beliefs and testify against one another.
More than people lost their jobs. Soon, other anticommunist politicians, most notably Senator Joseph McCarthyexpanded this probe to include anyone who worked in the federal government.
Thousands of federal employees were investigated, fired and even prosecuted. The Cold War Abroad The fight against subversion at home mirrored a growing concern with the Soviet threat abroad.
Many American officials feared this was the first step in a communist campaign to take over the world and deemed that nonintervention was not an option. Truman sent the American military into Korea, but the war dragged to a stalemate and ended in Other international disputes followed.
In the early s, President Kennedy faced a number of troubling situations in his own hemisphere. However, what was intended to be a brief military action spiraled into a year conflict.
The Close of the Cold War Almost as soon as he took office, President Richard Nixon began to implement a new approach to international relations. To that end, he encouraged the United Nations to recognize the communist Chinese government and, after a trip there inbegan to establish diplomatic relations with Beijing.
Inhe and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty SALT Iwhich prohibited the manufacture of nuclear missiles by both sides and took a step toward reducing the decades-old threat of nuclear war.Historical Background Office of the Historian Bureau of Public Affairs The United States, the Soviet Union, and the End of World War II.
Wartime relations between the United States and the Soviet Union can be considered one of the highpoints in the longstanding interaction between these two great powers. Start studying World History unit 5 review. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
United States Soviet Union. The Soviet Union set up Communist governments in all of the following EXCEPT: a period of better relations between the super powers in the s.
Relations between the Soviet Union and China reach the breaking point as the two governments engage in an angry ideological debate about the future of communism.
The United States, for its part. The Soviet Union and the United States.
Relations between the Soviet Union and the United States were driven by a complex interplay of ideological, political, and economic factors, which led to shifts between cautious cooperation and often bitter superpower rivalry over the years.
Between November and December , a number of the coalition governments established in the Eastern European countries occupied by Soviet troops during the war transformed into Communist "People's Republics" with strong ties to the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Constitution directly violated the Declaration of Human Rights from the United Nations, and this issue became a prominent point of separation between the United States and the Soviet Union.