Types[ edit ] Ontological dualism makes dual commitments about the nature of existence as it relates to mind and matter, and can be divided into three different types: Substance dualism asserts that mind and matter are fundamentally distinct kinds of foundations. Substance dualism is important historically for having given rise to much thought regarding the famous mind—body problem. Substance dualism is a philosophical position compatible with most theologies which claim that immortal souls occupy an independent realm of existence distinct from that of the physical world.
Other religious beliefs and views[ edit ] Charon Greek who guides dead souls to the Underworld. In theological reference to the soul, the terms "life" and "death" are viewed as emphatically more definitive than the common concepts of " biological life " and "biological death".
Because the soul is said to be transcendent of the material existence, and is said to have potentially eternal lifethe death of the soul is likewise said to be an eternal death. Thus, in the concept of divine judgmentGod is commonly said to have options with regard to the dispensation of souls, ranging from Heaven i.
Typically both Heaven and hell are said to be eternal, or at least far beyond a typical human concept of lifespan and time. According to Louis Ginzbergsoul of Adam is the image of God. God is considered to be the Supreme Soul, with maximum degrees of spiritual qualities, such as peace, love and purity.
However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human beings. Higher than the soul is the spirit, which is considered to be the real self; the source of everything we call "good"—happiness, wisdom, love, compassion, harmony, peace, etc.
While the spirit is eternal and incorruptible, the soul is not. The soul acts as a link between the material body and the spiritual self, and therefore shares some characteristics of both.
The soul can be attracted either towards the spiritual or towards the material realm, being thus the "battlefield" of good and evil.
It is only when the soul is attracted towards the spiritual and merges with the Self that it becomes eternal and divine. Anthroposophy[ edit ] Rudolf Steiner differentiated three stages of soul development, which interpenetrate one another in consciousness: Miscellaneous[ edit ] In Surat Shabda Yogathe soul is considered to be an exact replica and spark of the Divine.
Similarly, the spiritual teacher Meher Baba held that "Atma, or the soul, is in reality identical with Paramatma the Oversoul — which is one, infinite, and eternal Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but when one is sleeping, the soul is active and reveals "an award of joy or sorrow drawing near" in dreams.
He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being. Plato says that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think.
He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn in subsequent bodies. However, Aristotle believed that only one part of the soul was immortal namely the intellect logos. The Platonic soul consists of three parts: Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal caste system.
Logos keeps the other functions of the soul regulated. For example, the full actualization of an eye, as an independent organism, is to see its purpose or final cause. This organization between form and matter is necessary for any activity, or functionality, to be possible in a natural being.
Using an artifact non-natural being as an example, a house is a building for human habituation, but for a house to be actualized requires the material wood, nails, bricks, etc.
However, this does not imply that a house has a soul. In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves for example, a builder builds a house. In natural beings, this source of motion is contained within the being itself.
The various faculties of the soulsuch as nutrition, movement peculiar to animalsreason peculiar to humanssensation special, common, and incidental and so forth, when exercised, constitute the "second" actuality, or fulfillment, of the capacity to be alive.
For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and live their life, while the latter can no longer do so. Aristotle identified three hierarchical levels of natural beings: For these groups, he identified three corresponding levels of soul, or biological activity: Although mostly seen as opposing Plato in regard to the immortality of the soul, a controversy can be found in relation to the fifth chapter of the third book.
In this text both interpretations can be argued for, soul as a whole can be deemed mortal and a part called "active intellect" or "active mind" is immortal and eternal.The belief in an immaterial soul requires that central aspects of a person, such as consciousness, memories, and personality, are not contingent upon our physical bodies.
The concept was first formalized in western philosophy by Rene Descartes in the 17th century, who proposed that our soul interacts with our body via the pineal gland in the brain.
However, this explanation was not satisfactory: how can an immaterial mind interact with the physical pineal gland? Because Descartes' was such a difficult theory to defend, some of his disciples, such as Arnold Geulincx and Nicholas Malebranche, proposed a different explanation: That all mind–body interactions required the direct.
Personally, I think that the most rational view to take, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, is that there's no such thing as an immaterial soul. Our consciousness seems most likely to be an emergent property of having an information p.
1 Dialogue on Personal Identity & Immortality& Immortality Theories of Personal Identity • Same Soul Theory: A person at one time is the very same person as a person at a later time if and only if they have the very same immaterial soulvery same immaterial soul.
René Descartes: The Mind-Body Distinction. This is a problem facing any scholastic-Aristotelian theory of mind or soul-body union where the soul is understood to be an immaterial substantial form.
how can an immaterial soul assubstantial form act on the potential in a material thing? Can any sense be made of the claim that a non. Locke’s psychological theory of personal identity phil Jeﬀ Speaks October 3, argument against the view that the identities of men consist in sameness of an immaterial soul.
How does this argument go? Does the argument rely on the assumption that there are no immaterial souls?