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Amateur participation in sport at lower levels is often called "grassroots sport". The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practised a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby.
With it being a necessary part of some sports such as motorsportit is used in others to improve performance.
Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision making. Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear.
Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology.
For example, infull-body, non-textile swimsuits were banned by FINAas they were enhancing swimmers' performances.
In some sports, players can now challenge decisions made by officials. In Association footballgoal-line technology makes decisions on whether a ball has crossed the goal line or not.
The final decision rests with the referee. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Main article: Politics and sports Sports and politics can influence each other greatly.
Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.
Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of football and rugby union at Gaelic venues. This ban, also known as Rule 42,  is still enforced, but was modified to allow football and rugby to be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road was redeveloped into Aviva Stadium.
Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sport, or in its reporting: On occasion, such tensions can lead to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond the sporting venue, as in the Football War. These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sport being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants.
A very famous case when sport and politics collided was the Olympics in Munich. Masked men entered the hotel of the Israeli olympic team and killed many of their men.It isn’t as bad as it sounds.
From the article: There is a socioeconomic element at play when it comes to exclusion. Those people of color with lower income can feel marginalized by poly community culture’s financial demands, which can include dishing out cash for a fancy play party or a plane ticket to Burning Man.
Endurance training involves manipulation of intensity, duration, and frequency of training sessions. The relative impact of short, high-intensity training versus longer, slower distance training has been studied and debated for decades among athletes, coaches, and scientists.
Currently, the popularity pendulum has swung towards high-intensity interval training.
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