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Classical conditioning Conditioning plays a huge part in the concept of persuasion. It is more often about leading someone into taking certain actions of their own, rather than giving direct commands. Great examples of this are professional athletes. They are paid to connect themselves to things that can be directly related to their roles; sport shoes, tennis rackets, golf balls, or completely irrelevant things like soft drinks, popcorn poppers and panty hose.
The important thing for the advertiser is to establish a connection to the consumer. Just like you sometimes recall a memory from a certain smell or sound, the objective of some ads is solely to bring back certain emotions when you see their logo in your local store.
The hope is that repeating the message several times makes consumers more likely to purchase the product because they already connect it with a good emotion and positive experience.
Stefano DellaVigna and Matthew Gentzkow did a comprehensive study on the effects of persuasion in different domains. They discovered that persuasion has little or no effect on advertisement; however, there was a substantial effect of persuasion on voting if there was face-to-face contact.
Cognitive dissonance Leon Festinger originally proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance in He theorized that human beings constantly strive for mental consistency. Our cognition thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes can be in agreement, unrelated, or in disagreement with each other.
Our cognition can also be in agreement or disagreement with our behaviors.
When we detect conflicting cognition, or dissonance, it gives us a sense of incompleteness and discomfort. For example, a person who is addicted to smoking cigarettes but also suspects it could be detrimental to his health suffers from cognitive dissonance.
Festinger suggests that we are motivated to reduce this dissonance until our Harnessing the science of persuasion is in harmony with itself. We strive for mental consistency. There are four main ways we go about reducing or eliminating our dissonance: Revisiting the example of the smoker, he can either quit smoking, reduce the importance of his health, convince himself he is not at risk, or that the reward of smoking is worth the cost of his health.
Cognitive dissonance is powerful when it relates to competition and self-concept. Elaboration likelihood model Persuasion has traditionally been associated with two routes.
Whereby an individual evaluates information presented to them based on the pros and cons of it and how well it supports their values Peripheral route: Change is mediated by how attractive the source of communication is and by bypassing the deliberation process.
It holds that the probability of effective persuasion depends on how successful the communication is at bringing to mind a relevant mental representation, which is the elaboration likelihood.
Thus if the target of the communication is personally relevant, this increases the elaboration likelihood of the intended outcome and would be more persuasive if it were through the central route.
Communication which does not require careful thought would be better suited to the peripheral route. A main motivation for individuals is to increase positive external rewards and minimize the costs. Attitudes serve to direct behavior towards the rewards and away from punishment.
The process by which an individual protects their ego from being threatened by their own negative impulses or threatening thoughts. When an individual derives pleasure from presenting an image of themselves which is in line with their self-concept and the beliefs that they want to be associated with.
Inoculation theory A vaccine introduces a weak form of a virus that can easily be defeated to prepare the immune system should it need to fight off a stronger form of the same virus. In much the same way, the theory of inoculation suggests that a certain party can introduce a weak form of an argument that is easily thwarted in order to make the audience inclined to disregard a stronger, full-fledged form of that argument from an opposing party.
This often occurs in negative advertisements and comparative advertisements—both for products and political causes. Transportation theory psychology Narrative transportation theory proposes that when people lose themselves in a story, their attitudes and intentions change to reflect that story.
The mental state of narrative transportation can explain the persuasive effect of stories on people, who may experience narrative transportation when certain contextual and personal preconditions are met, as Green and Brock  postulate for the transportation-imagery model.
Narrative transportation occurs whenever the story receiver experiences a feeling of entering a world evoked by the narrative because of empathy for the story characters and imagination of the story plot.
Social judgment theory[ edit ] Main article: Social judgment theory Social judgment theory suggests that when people are presented with an idea or any kind of persuasive proposal, their natural reaction is to immediately seek a way to sort the information subconsciously and react to it.
We evaluate the information and compare it with the attitude we already have, which is called the initial attitude or anchor point. When trying to sort incoming persuasive information, an audience evaluates whether it lands in their latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitment or indifference, or the latitude of rejection.
The size of these latitudes varies from topic to topic. Our "ego-involvement" generally plays one of the largest roles in determining the size of these latitudes.
When a topic is closely connected to how we define and perceive ourselves, or deals with anything we care passionately about, our latitudes of acceptance and non-commitment are likely to be much smaller and our attitude of rejection much larger. An audience is likely to distort incoming information to fit into their unique latitudes.
If something falls within the latitude of acceptance, the subject tends to assimilate the information and consider it closer to his anchor point than it really is.Cialdini, R.
B., Harnessing the Science of Persuasion. Harvard Business Review, 79(9), Lecture 6: Irrational Behaviour and the Art of Influence. Harnessing the Science of Persuasion Robert B.
Cialdini is the Regents’Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University and the author of Inﬂuence: Science and Practice(Allyn & Bacon,),now in its fourth rutadeltambor.comr regularly updated information about the in-.
Expert Witness Persuasion: What We Know and Where We Go. Jennifer Cox and Stanley L. Brodsky respond: What We Know. In their essay, “Juries, witnesses, and persuasion: A brief overview of the science of persuasion and its applications for expert witness testimony” Valez, Neal, and Kovera describe the dual cognitive .
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