Klingenstein Library are especially strong for the Colonial and Revolutionary War periods. This guide covers the years towith the inevitable steps forward and backward. The geographic scope reflects the library collections for this time period: The points of view of all participants, including foreign governments and other allies, are represented.
Organizations such as trade unions, religious groups, corporations or clubs may have their own newspapers, but the term is more commonly used to refer to daily or weekly publications that bring news of general interest to large portions of the public in a specific geographic area.
The United States had 1, general-circulation daily newspapers in -- 14 percent fewer than it had inbefore the arrival of television. The news in general-circulation newspapers is gathered and then written up by reporters. Photographers shoot pictures to accompany the stories and graphic artists contribute charts and diagrams.
General-circulation newspapers play a role in commerce through the the advertisements they carry; they provide readers with information of practical value, such as television schedules, weather maps and listings of stock prices; and these newspapers provide a source of entertainment through their stories and through such features as comic strips and crossword puzzles.
However, one of the most important functions of the general-circulation newspaper -- a crucial function in a democracy -- is to provide citizens with information on government and politics. Leaving newspapers free to perform this function was considered important enough by the first Congress so that they specifically protected it in the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, ratified inwhich, among its other guarantors of free expression, prohibits Congress from passing any law "abridging the freedom Human beings exchanged news long before they could write.
They spread news by word of mouth on crossroads, at campfires or at markets. Messengers raced back from battlefields with reports on victories or defeats. Criers walked through villages announcing births, deaths, marriages and divorces.
Stories of unlikely occurrences spread, in the words of one anthropological report, "like wildfire" through preliterate societies. These early efforts to exchange news are discussed in the book "A History of News" by Mitchell Stephens.
With the arrival of writing and literacy news reports gained added reliability and, in advanced societies like that of Rome and China, became more formal. Rome had a particularly sophisticated system for circulating written news, centered on the acta -- daily handwritten news sheets, which were posted by the government in the Roman Forum from the year 59 B.
China, too, had early government-produced news sheets, called the tipao, which were first circulated among officials during the Han dynasty B. The printing press was used to disseminate news in Europe shortly after Johann Gutenberg invented the letter press, employing movable type, in the s.
One of the first printed works that might qualify as news was an Italian account of a tournament printed in about A letter written by Christopher Columbus, reporting on his discoveries, was set in type and circulating in Barcelona before Columbus arrived there in April of In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, thousands of printed newsbooks, short pamphlets reporting on a news event, and news ballads, accounts of news events written in verse and usually printed on one side of a single sheet of paper, circulated in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in the new European colonies in America.
The first news report printed in the Americas described an earthquake in Guatemala and was printed in Mexico in Although they touched upon a wide variety of news, these newsbooks and news ballads did not qualify as newspapers because they each appeared only once, to report on only one story, and they each had no identity separate from the particular news story they told.
The modern newspaper is a European invention. It owes little or nothing to the Roman acta No copies of which survivedor to the early experiments in news dissemination developments in China.
Modern newspapers were introduced to China in the nineteenth century primarily by missionaries and other foreigners.History of Newspapers. By Mitchell Stephens. Similar protests reverberated through the colonial newspapers when the British Parliament approved the Townshend Acts in , which imposed taxes on American imports of glass, lead, paint, tea and, significantly, paper.
thanks to the rise of science and the development of realism in. A History of the British People, Their Culture & Civilisation 5 reading, the ability to develop an argument and support it with illustrations.
In addition to our online resources, there are many research tools available in the library's reading room. On-site users can access digitized primary source documents from the New-York Historical Society in Gateway to North America: The People Places, & Organizations of 19th Century New York and digitized Revolutionary War Orderly Books.
British Newspaper Development - From the 17th century to the age of globalization - Kerstin Mickenbecker - Essay - English Language and Literature Studies - Culture and Applied Geography - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay.
The first and most significant development of the new century was the publication of the first English daily newspaper, An Illustrated History of English Newspapers to (Aldershot: Ashgate, ) 1 The British Library has a copy, shelfmark Cd History essays.
History is a wide ranging subject and our history essay examples will help inspire your studies. Our essays and dissertations cover popular history topics including the arts, past and present, the Hundred Years’ War, civil war in seventeenth century Britain, the development of nation states after the French Revolution, European imperialism in Africa, conflict and change in.