Screening A classic problem with validity arises when someone uses a test for a purpose for which it was not designed. Many persons therefore wonder if this is an appropriate use for the test. For example, common sense can tell us what personality characteristics make good police officers. They should have good self-esteem, yet not overvalue themselves.
Psychiatry, Feb ; For the assessment of depression in older people, it is the scale against which others should be rated. The scale is administered by an interviewer and takes minutes to complete. The pack is made up of 19 cards with enlarged black print on a white background and are presented one at a time.
Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia The Cornell Scale Alexopoulos et al, is specifically for the assessment of depression in dementia and is administered by a clinician.
It takes 20 minutes with the carer and 10 minutes with the patient. It differs from other depression scales in the method of administration rather than in analysis of any different symptom profile seen in depression with dementia compared with depression alone Purandara et al, A score of 8 or more suggests significant depressive symptoms.
It is the best scale available to assess mood in the presence of cognitive impairment.
Geriatric Mental State Schedule The Geriatric Mental State Schedule GMSS is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring a wide range of psychopathology in older people in all settings, but most importantly in community surveys Copeland et al, Literature on the GMSS is extensive, and a number of different factors can be derived from the results.
The GMSS can be administered via a laptop computer, has been translated into a number of different languages, has to be administered by a trained interviewer, and takes about 45 minutes to deliver.
The use of the GMSS is limited to research, where it represents the gold standard.
Originally developed for a general population study Radloff,the instrument has been found to be particularly useful in older people. The scale consists of 20 items and the scoring range is from 0 to A cut-off score of 16 has been suggested to differentiate patients with mild depression from normal subjects, with a score of 23 and over indicating significant depression.
It is a semi-structured interview, requires training to complete, and takes minutes to administer. It is used to assess in all age groups, both for clinical and research purposes, the severity of depression rather than as a diagnostic tool. It was developed by taking items from a longer scale.
It is widely used in treatment trials, in both young and older patients. Specific instructions are given regarding the ratings and there is a comparative lack of emphasis on somatic symptoms, making it useful for the assessment of depression in people with physical illness. Cut-off scores have been suggested by Snaith et al It is the most widely used measure of cognitive function, and users need some training and familiarisation with the instrument.
The original validity and reliability of the MMSE were based on patients with a variety of psychiatric disorders, the scale successfully separating those with dementia, depression, or a combination of the two.
A cut-off score of 23 for the presence of cognitive impairment has been suggested, with variations depending on lack of education. Mental Test Score and Abbreviated Mental Test Score The Mental Test Score MTS and its abbreviated version are brief questionnaires to assess the degree of cognitive function, particularly memory and orientation; the MTS takes 10 minutes to administer, and the abbreviated form 3 minutes Hodkinson, The MTS was developed from the Blessed Dementia Scale and was used in a study of over patients carried out under the auspices of the Royal College of Physicians in the s.
A score of 25 and above out of 34 is within normal range. From it, the Abbreviated Mental Test Score AMTS was developed, scored out of 9 or 10 depending on whether the optional recognition questionnaire is completed.
The main advantages are its simplicity of administration and the non-threatening nature of the task.
The patient is asked to draw a clock face marking the hours and then draw the hands to indicate a particular time e. This test is particularly useful in the general practice setting.The statutory requirement for teachers to use performance scales (P-scales) to assess pupils with SEND who are not working at the standard of national curriculum assessments will be removed, the government has announced today.
Aetna considers autonomic testing experimental and investigational for all other indications (e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, concussion, Raynaud phenomenon, traumatic brachial plexus injury, traumatic brain injury, and predicting foot ulcers) because its effectiveness for indications other than the ones listed above has not been established.
Writing Level Descriptors in a word doc - from P(i) through to 1A/5(26). I have used P scales from P4 to Level 1 and put them in an APP type of format similar to what I currently use for the rest of my class. This should be useful for SEN children who are not yet at Level 1 and therefore not assessed using APP/5().
"The term 'executive functioning' generally refers to the mechanisms by which performance is optimized in situations requiring the operation of a number of cognitive processes (Baddeley, ).
TA, including P scale data, should be submitted for every pupil who is: registered to take a national curriculum test; registered as working below the standard of the tests; Schools should use the correct codes when submitting data, as detailed in this document.