The History of Autonomy a. Before Kant The roots of autonomy as self-determination can be found in ancient Greek philosophy, in the idea of self-mastery. A just soul, for Plato, is one in which this rational human part governs over the two others.
Brought up in a Pentecostal household, Kevin first came out to his family when he was sixteen. His mother, refusing to accept homosexuality as a natural sexual orientation, convinced Kevin to undergo a series of exorcisms to expunge the demons that church members believed were causing his homosexual desire.
After the tenth exorcism — which was particularly brutal and degrading — Kevin and his mother finally came to accept his sexual orientation. Now twenty, Kevin still expresses difficulty reconciling his faith with his gay identity.
Last June, a shocking youtube video of such an exorcism by Manifested Glory Ministries attracted national news. Even Christian ministries who preach that homosexuality is a lifestyle choice and a sin have censured these exorcisms, arguing that they are dangerous. And the majority of gays who undergo these rites are minors, leading some to suggest that this is a form of child abuse.
But exorcism is actually on the rise and may be more common in America than ever before. In the Pew Research Center found that seventy percent of respondents believe that demons are active in the world.
Similar findings have been reported by Gallup and the Baylor Religion Survey. However, this resurgence of demonology raises serious questions about where demonic influence ends and individual autonomy begins.
As evidenced in the Gospels, the casting out of demons was an important feature of the early church. In fact, pagans sometimes sought out Christians from whom they could receive exorcisms. By the early modern period, Catholic Europe had a rich culture of local exorcists.
The Ritual Romanum, written in under Pope Paul V, consolidated popular forms of exorcism into a formal rite. This brought exorcism under the direct control of the church hierarchy and in the modern era the rite increasingly became a relic. However, in the s, there was a resurgence of exorcism and quasi-exorcism among evangelical Protestants and charismatic Catholics.
Modern deliverance ministries espouse a form of demonology entirely different from that found in ancient times. Until the twentieth century, the quintessential case of possession was the Gerasenes demoniac, with an alternate personality, a total lack of socialization, and supernatural abilities.
You have the crack cocaine spirit. You have the adulterous spirit. Everything carries a spirit.
Indeed, this seems to be the most appealing aspect of deliverance ministries: When all behavior is ascribed to the influence of demons, there is no one who cannot be exonerated.
Pigs in the Parlora seminal text for the movement, offers an elaborate taxonomy of possessing demons. Here, demons of homosexuality appear as part of a larger family of demons responsible for sexual impurity. Within this system, humans seem to lose all autonomy; instead, individuality is entirely the product of the various demons possessing us.
Ministries that exorcise gay teens are quick to argue that the teens come to them. Modern demonology effectively allows individuals to alienate any part of themselves that they are uncomfortable with.
This is no doubt appealing to a variety of people who are conflicted over their desires — whether they are gay teens, guilt-ridden adulterers, or people who cheat on their diets.
David Frankfurter, Evil Incarnate: Pew Research Center, U.1. The Concept of Autonomy. In the western tradition, the view that individual autonomy is a basic moral and political value is very much a modern development. The Principle of Respect for Autonomy The Principle of Autonomy is considered one of the foremost principles upheld within modern healthcare settings.
It is described to maintain an elevated role within the Four Principles approach, an opinion which is hotly debated amongst philosophers and bioethicists alike.
Autonomy or autonomous behavior is a contentious term in reference to unmanned vehicles due to the poor understanding of whether something acting without outside commands is doing so through its own ability to make decisions or through a method of decision making pre-programmed into it.
It is a quality which is rather abstract in nature . This ideal continues through Stoic philosophy and can be seen in the early modern philosophy of Spinoza.
The concept of autonomy itself continued to develop in the modern period with the decrease of religious authority and the increase of political liberty and emphasis on individual reason.
Part of the appeal of understanding autonomy is. In my thesis, I examine the relationship between modern technology and human autonomy from the philosophical perspective of Martin Heidegger. He argues that the essence of modern technology is the Gestell.
Often translated as ‘enframing,’ the Gestell is a mode of revealing, or understanding, being, in which all beings are revealed as, or understood as, raw materials. “Autonomy after Auschwitz is an exceptionally strong and interesting work.
Shuster productively relates Adorno both to German idealism and to contemporary analytic philosophy, opening up Adorno’s work and engaging it from perspectives that reveal unexpected nuances .