The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income. And they die quietly in some of the poorest villages on earth, far removed from the scrutiny and the conscience of the world. Being meek and weak in life makes these dying multitudes even more invisible in death. Source 4 Around percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted.
Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines Abstract Poverty is present everywhere but the kind in Africa is of great magnitude both in its spread and destitutive dimension. In other places any manifestation of poverty is a challenge to move forward but in Africa, the reverse is the case.
Therefore the continent and international community are not happy about it, hence various programmes and strategies were put in place. Ironically there is little to show for it.
Development is still illusive. Some questions are raised with a view to proffer recommendations that may move the continent forward.
What are the roots of poverty in Africa? Why should there be a symbiotic relationship between poverty and development in Africa? Can Africa really develop? Development, sustainable development, poverty, symbiotic relationship, Environment, population Introduction Literally it may be affirmed that poverty and development are two sides to a coin; one presupposes and challenges the other.
Generally, in the West, it is the manifestation of poverty, constraints, disease or accidents that propels it for progress.
This is the story behind inventions and technology. In Africa though, poverty is a hindrance to progress. Lack of infrastructure, deep seated corruption practices, various forms of conflict, bad governance and poor health facilities cannot promote a healthy population committed to work for progress and development.
As pessimistic as this picture may be, all is not lost. Africa can still be a developed continent. It is this belief that motivates the reflection of this discourse. This paper begins with an analysis of the two principal concepts of development and poverty with special emphasis on what World poverty and development development and its characteristics, how can development come about, what is poverty and what are the roots of poverty in Africa.
This part is followed by the section on relationship between poverty and development using deforestation as a platform for discussion while the last part deals with the question if African countries can really develop.
Development is often assumedly socio-economic, political, science and technology biased. Arguably, the concept of development is a complex one. If GDP were to be the measurement as a mean average, it does not say anything about the distribution of total income of its country.
Thus some countries with very unequal income distribution may have the higher GNPs per head in the world. And neither does it capture the totality of the development situation of the country. GDP states the value of the economic output as a result of the use of resources mainly of labour, land and capital earned by national members of a society.
The outflow profit and benefits of multinational enterprises MNEs as well as the remittances of immigrants in the society are not included in the calculation. Similarly, the conditions for an effective PQLI may be difficult to establish. Do the usual three indicators of life expectancy, infant mortality at age one and adult literacy discloses everything?
Even if the yardstick of democracy, level of corruption and technological advancement is used, does it explain the totality of the concept of development? The truth is that people are both the means and the end of economic development as rightly affirmed by the international community.
Therefore, development cannot be merely economic development or GNP as important as that may be. It must necessarily include the conditions of reality that allow people to take their destiny into their own hands. Taking their lives into their own hands will involve economic, social, political, psychological, environmental, cultural, religious and international dimensions of their environment.
In this wise, development includes the conditions of reality that allow people to take their destiny into their own hands individually and collectively Oyeshola, Better still, development can be defined in terms of the ability and capability of a people.
To procure sufficient natural resources to meet the basic needs of all in a self-reliant manner; adjust to adverse environmental changes with minimal disastrous consequences; have a stable, democratic and independent system of government; and maintain harmony within the human community and between human and the rest of the environment WCC, For Mahbub UI Haq, development focus is on human needs, the compilation of poverty profiles, and the situation of the bottom forty percent of society often bypassed by development.
He went on further to state that developmental efforts are to be placed on measuring the costs of adjustment not only in terms of lost output, but also in terms of lost lives and the lost human potential Mahbub Ul Haq, In this respect, the lesson seems to have been learned by many leaders including some Nigerian leaders that human welfare is the ultimate end of development not GNP figures.
The welfare of the human person, seen in its totality, must interest policy-makers and their executives because the good health of a person becomes his wealth, and his skills cultivated through carefully planned educational programmes and responsible socialisation, provide a crucial factor in production.Poverty affects a child’s development and educational outcomes beginning in the earliest years of life, both directly and indirectly through mediated, moderated, and transactional processes.
School readiness, or the child’s ability to use and proﬁt from school, has been recognized as. The primary World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially-recognized international sources.
It presents the most current and accurate global development data available, and includes national, regional and global estimates. The course is an interdisciplinary analysis of poverty and development, where the focus is on how and why some countries can achieve poverty reduction and development while others do not.
2 United Nations Development Programme T he international development community has had poverty in focus for more than a decade. At summit meetings and other occasions, world leaders have stated and reconfirmed their agreement that poverty must be reduced and eventually eradicated.
Rural poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of rural population) Survey mean consumption or income per capita, bottom 40% of population ( PPP $ per day) Survey mean consumption or income per capita, total population ( PPP $ per day).
poverty, the employment prospects of the poor and broader indicators of human development. The extent to which growth reduces poverty depends on the degree to which the poor participate in the growth process and share in its proceeds. Thus, both the pace and pattern of growth matter for reducing poverty.